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CO2 Black Pepper Oil: 48 Aroma, 4 key points of CO2 extraction

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Black pepper oil

Black pepper oil

Botanical Name: Piper nigrum L. Plant Part: Black Peppercorns.
Pepper is one of the oldest and the world’s most important spices.
It is the dried fruit of Piper nigrum L. Native to Madagascar and the Malabar Coast of South Western India, pepper is also known as the King of Spices. The berries start turning from red to black as they mature, and black pepper is dried, developed unripe fruit.

Advantage of CO2 black pepper oil: Supercritical Fluid Extraction Process (SCFE) is also called the Co2 Extraction process. Black pepper seeds, black pepper in line with oleoresin of black pepper. The black pepper essential oil produced by the supercritical extraction process is one of the highest-quality black pepper essential oils. This oil is free from solvent, pesticide residues, and heavy metal traces and therefore is ideal for high-quality pharmaceutical, cosmetic, cosmeceutical, nutraceutical formulations, and food products. Black pepper Essential oil is extracted from berries of black pepper and is light greenish in appearance.

Top 4 active compounds of black pepper oil

  • Black peppercorns contain compounds called alkaloids and one of the most important is piperine.
  • It acts as a central nervous system depressant and suppresses fever and pain.
  • It is known to be anti-inflammatory and insecticidal.
  • It is known to cause skin pigmentation and is used in vitiligo.

Application of CO2-extracted black pepper oil

  • Pepper can be used in tonics and as a flavor ingredient in food products.
    In meat products, it is used for curing and preserving.
  • The fruits are acrid, bitter, carminative, aphrodisiac, diuretic, digestive and stimulant. They are of use in arthritis, asthma, fever, cough, dysentery, dyspepsia, obesity, and flatulence by aiding in digestion.
  • Black pepper oil is also good for muscle aches and pain.
  • Black Pepper’s woody warm aroma comes from the volatile oils found mostly in the flesh and skin. The pungency of its bite comes from the alkaloids and resins found in seeds. The essential oil goes into perfumes and flavorings. It is used for reducing stomach and intestinal gas and has been found to stimulate the activities of the heart and kidneys.
  • Piperine also works as an insecticide against houseflies and is used for spraying against different types of pests in gardening.
  • Cubeb pepper comprises substances that are carminative, antiseptic, and diuretic. Since these substances relieve throat inflammation cubeb oil is used in throat Lozenges.

The formula of CO2-extracted black pepper oil

Black pepper blends well with rosemary, lavender, frankincense, sandalwood, marjoram, and other spices. As for safety, black pepper is non-sensitizing and non-toxic. In high concentrations, it may be an irritant and redden the skin.

Two methods of black pepper oil extraction

The extraction of black pepper oleoresin is mostly based on solvent extraction, supplemented by ultrasonic and microwave.

Method 1#: Solvent extraction

Although the solvent extraction method has a large processing capacity, it has disadvantages such as large solvent consumption, long extraction time, damage to active ingredients, and residual organic solvents.

Supercritical CO2 extraction equipment
Supercritical CO2 extraction equipment

Method 2#: Supercritical CO2 extraction

Supercritical CO2 extraction is usually carried out at a low temperature, which can effectively prevent the oxidation and dissipation of heat-sensitive components; CO2 is a gas under normal conditions and is non-toxic. The extracted components are easily removed after separation, and there is no solvent residue at all, which effectively solves the traditional extraction.

Supercritical CO2 extraction equipment
Supercritical CO2 extraction equipment

Four key points of the CO2 black pepper oil extraction process

4 parameters of the black pepper oil CO2 extraction process:

  • Extraction temperature: 42°C.
  • Extraction pressure: 340 bar.
  • Extraction time: 120 minutes.
  • Granularity: 30-50 mesh.

Points 1#: CO2 Extraction temperature

The yield of black pepper essential oil first increases with the increase in temperature, reaching the maximum at 42°C, and the temperature continues to rise, but the yield of essential oil decreases. Considering comprehensively, the optimal temperature is selected as 42°C.

Points 2#: CO2 Extraction pressure

As the pressure increases, the yield of black pepper essential oil also increases. When the extraction pressure is 34 MPa, the yield reaches the maximum value of 6.46%. The extraction pressure continues to increase, but the yield decreases, so supercritical The best choice for CO2 extraction of black pepper essential oil is 34 MPa.

Points 3#: CO2 Extraction time

With the extension of the extraction time, the yield of black pepper essential oil gradually increased, but after the extraction time was 120 minutes, if the extraction time continued to be extended, the extraction yield increased little. Therefore, the optimal extraction time is 120 minutes.

Points 4#: Granularity

The particle size decreases, the specific surface area increases, the contact area between the particles and the fluid increases, and the mass transfer path of the solute from the particle interior to the fluid becomes shorter. Therefore, the particle size decreases, and the extraction rate increases.

However, too fine particle size may aggravate the back-mixing phenomenon of the bed and adversely affect the extraction. Therefore, there is an optimal particle size range.

The particle size range of 30-50 mesh is recommended.

48 aroma substances in CO2 black pepper oil

A total of 48 aroma substances were identified in the black pepper oleoresin extracted by supercritical CO2.

Among them, in the black pepper oleoresin obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction, a total of 22 aroma components were identified. The main compounds are 0-alone (4.81%), 3-element (11.00%), plant element (1.48%), element (57.70%), cis-farnesene (3.26%), g-bisabolene (2.20%), nucleolin (1.61%), piperine⑴.09% ).

CO2 black pepper oil oleoresin is a resinous product that is viscous, slightly darker in color, and contains essential oils extracted from crushed spices by appropriate methods. Almost all aroma and taste components in spices can be extracted. In addition to essential oils, there are also non-volatile spicy ingredients, fats, pigments, and other substances that can be dissolved in solvents, these substances can represent the effective ingredients in spices, and their aroma and taste are more balanced, complete, and fuller than essential oils.

In addition to aroma substances, black pepper oleoresin also contains pyrrolidine amide alkaloids-piperine.

Supercritical CO2 extraction equipment
Supercritical CO2 extraction equipment
Supercritical CO2 extraction equipment
Supercritical CO2 extraction equipment

Configuration of black pepper oil CO2 extraction equipment

Extraction vesselVolume: customized according to customer requirements, generally 100ml-1000l
Working pressure: 35MPa-100MPa adjustable
Working temperature: room temperature -85℃ adjustable
3 extraction vessels are recommended for production equipment
SeparatorVolume: Configured according to the volume of the extraction kettle, generally 50ml-800l
Working pressure: 10MPa-30MPa adjustable
Working temperature: room temperature -85℃ adjustable
Recommend 3 separation kettles
Working pressure: 16MPa
Gas storage tankVolume: According to the overall plan configuration, generally 10l-6000l
Working pressure: 9.9MPa
PumpCO2 high-pressure pump and carrier pump, with adjustable flow and pressure
Production equipment equipped with 2 high-pressure pumps
Heat Exchange SystemWorking pressure: 35MPa-100MPa
Working temperature: adjustable from room temperature to 90℃
Refrigeration system5℃-10℃
Security systemThe high-pressure pump and the inlet and outlet of all containers are equipped with an overpressure protection device, the safety interlocking device is connected to the PLC control system and the safety valve to ensure the safety of the system
The recommended configuration of black pepper oil CO2 extraction equipment